32. Related parties The transactions with related parties are done on an arm’s-length basis.All issued shares are held by the State of the Netherlands. One significant transaction with an enterprise that has a relationship with the State (DUO, the Dutch Education Executive Agency) is the remuneration received for student railcards (2016: €466 million, 2015: €459 million).Furthermore, the Group received a sum of €30 million in grants from the State in 2016 through various schemes (2015: €30 million). Of these grants, €29 million (€29 million in 2015) was recognised as ‘Other revenue’ and €1 million (€1 million in 2015) was deducted from the related costs.The following transactions took place with ProRail BV, a company with links to the State:The payment of the access charges for the rail infrastructure in the Netherlands. This is explained under note 7;For the financial of commercial facilities in New Key Projects (Nieuwe Sleutel Projecten) at stations, €8 million was agreed to be paid to ProRail BV as at 31 December 2016 (€11 million as at 31 December 2015). In 2016, €10 million (2015: €19 million) was paid to ProRail BV.The transactions with the Executive Board and the Supervisory Board members are explained under note 2.There were no significant transactions in 2016 and 2015 with joint ventures and other participating interests.The Group has a 5.8% participating interest in Eurofima. Eurofima is a European company that was set up for financing railway rolling stock. It is a supranational organisation that is headquartered in Basel, Switzerland. The following transactions and balance sheet positions apply for this party:(in millions of euros)20162015Interest expenses- 1 (in millions of euros)December 31, 2016December 31, 2015Private loans59449Group companiesThe main companies included in the consolidated financial statements are: Percentage interestStatutory Seat 20162015 Operating companies NS Reizigers BV*100.0100.0UtrechtAbellio Transport Holding BV100.0100.0UtrechtNedTrain BV*100.0100.0UtrechtNS Financial Services (Holdings) Ltd100.0100.0DublinNS Stations BV*100.0100.0UtrechtNS Vastgoed BV*100.0100.0UtrechtNS Insurance NV100.0100.0UtrechtNS Opleidingen BV*100.0100.0UtrechtNS Lease BV*100.0100.0Utrecht Subsidiaries of operating companiesThalys Nederland NV*100.0100.0UtrechtNS Internationaal BV*100.0100.0UtrechtNedTrain Ematech BV100.0100.0UtrechtNS Stations Retailbedrijf BV*100.0100.0UtrechtNS Fiets BV100.0100.0UtrechtNS-OV Fiets BV100.0100.0UtrechtQbuzz BV100.0100.0AmersfoortStationsfoodstore BV* 100.0100.0UtrechtNS Poort Ontwikkeling BV100.0100.0UtrechtNS Financial Services Company100.0100.0Dublin DISA Assets Ltd100.0100.0DublinAbellio Nederland BV100.0100.0UtrechtAbellio Transport Group Ltd100.0100.0GlasgowAbellio Transport Holdings Ltd100.0100.0LondonAbellio Greater Anglia Ltd100.0100.0LondonAbellio Rail Baden-Württemberg GmbH100.0100.0StuttgartAbellio Rail Mitteldeutschland GmbH100.0100.0HalleAbellio Rail NRW GmbH100.0100.0EssenAbellio GmbH100.0100.0EssenAbellio ScotRail Ltd100.0100.0GlasgowAbellio West London Ltd100.0100.0LondonAbellio London Ltd100.0100.0London Joint ventures Stationslocaties OG CV55.855.8UtrechtBasisfonds Stationslocaties CV50.950.9UtrechtMerseyrail Services Holding Company Ltd50.050.0HampshireNorthern Rail Holdings Ltd 50.050.0Hampshire Joint operations Stationsdrogisterijen CV50.050.0Zaandam Other interests WestfalenBahn GmbH25.025.0BielefeldEurofima5.85.8Basel*Pursuant to the provisions of Section 403, Book 2 of the Dutch Civil Code, NS Groep NV has assumed liability in respect of the debts arising from legal acts.Pursuant to Sections 379 and 414, Book 2 of the Dutch Civil Code, a complete list of the Group's subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures has been filed with the office of the Trade Register in Utrecht.